January 21, 2015
A few days ago, Virginia state senator Chap Peterson introduced new Homeowner Bill of Rights legislation in the 2015 General Assembly. The proposal sets out certain rights of property owners in HOA and condominium communities. For example, SB1008 recites a owner’s right to due process in the association’s rule violation decision-making. I anticipate political debate on whether SB1008 simply restates existing legal protections or contributes to them. Regardless, the introduction of this bill illustrates that rule violations are a hot item in association matters. Who collects on association rule violations? Boards in most associations are comprised of unpaid volunteers. Most of an association’s day-to-day work is done by property managers hired by the board.
Federal Debt Collection Laws.
Generally, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (“FDCPA”) protects consumers from abusive debt-collection practices. This Act does more than provide defenses in collection lawsuits or authorize a federal agency to take regulatory action. If debt collection businesses, including law firms, violate the FDCPA, they may be liable in an independent lawsuit. Under the FDCPA, it is easier for debtors to sue collectors for false or misleading statements in correspondence. The Act also requires certain notices in correspondence, such as notifying the consumer of their right to seek verification of the debt. In my previous blog post, I provided some examples of this in the foreclosure context. Where the facts and circumstances allow, class action lawsuits may be brought for FDCPA violations. Broad application of the FDCPA against association property managers would force them to change many of their practices. For example, the Act examines whether a notice would be materially confusing to the least sophisticated consumer. Are association property managers debt collectors for purposes of the FDCPA?
Welnowska v. Westward Management, Inc.
A 2014 court case illustrates the current limitations in applying the FDCPA to association property managers. Anna Welnowska & Jerzy Sendorek owned a residential condominium unit in the Madison Manor 2 Condominium Association in Chicago, Illinois. In July 2012, Madison Manor hired Westward Management, Inc., as its “full service” property manager. Part of Westward’s duties was collection of assessments and fines. Westward mailed collections letters to Welnowska & Sendorek in the name of Madison Manor. The owners disputed the charges. Madison Manor filed a lawsuit seeking a judgment for the unpaid sums and eviction of the owners.
In August 2013, Welnowska’s & Sendorek’s attorneys filed a FDCPA lawsuit against Westward in federal court. The manager filed a motion to dismiss, arguing that it is not a “debt collector.” The FDCPA has an exception for collections activity that is “incidental to a bona fide fiduciary obligation.” 15 U.S.C. Sect. 1692a(6)(F). A fiduciary is someone, such as a trustee or corporate director, who owes a high standard of care in managing someone else’s money or property.
Westward argued that its debt collection activity was only one of many duties it had to the association. The owners argued that this exception did not apply because the debt collection was central to the fiduciary obligation, not incidental. In his July 24, 2014 decision, Judge Edmond Chang rejected the owners’ argument on the grounds that Westward had numerous non-financial, managerial obligations to the association.
Alternatively, the owners argued that the debt collection activity was entirely outside the scope of Westward’s Management Agreement with the association and thus was not “incidental to” the fiduciary obligation. This written agreement specifically excluded collection on delinquent assessments and charges except for FDCPA notices. Westward separately billed the association for the collections activity at issue in the case.
The Court found that if Westward indeed acted outside the scope of the Management Agreement, the incidental-to-a-fiduciary-obligation exception would not apply. This case illustrates why an association’s property manager does not enjoy “automatic” exception from the FDCPA. In each case where the manager asserts this defense, courts will review the Management Agreement and related facts and determine: (a) whether the FDCPA would apply absent the exception; (b) if the manager has a fiduciary obligation to the association; (c) the nature and scope of that fiduciary obligation; and (d) the relationship between the debt collection activity in the case and that fiduciary obligation. The Westward case demonstrates the challenges to homeowners in bringing a successful FDCPA claim against a property manager.
Westward sought refuge from the FDCPA under the “fiduciary” exception. Most service providers try to avoid designation as a fiduciary. Fiduciaries owe strict duties to their beneficiaries. If the court deems that there is more than one beneficiary, the court may apply a duty to the fiduciary to act impartially between them. A fiduciary may be liable to a beneficiary for a claim for Breach of Fiduciary Duty. Over the years, the General Assembly has enacted legislation imposing special duties on other types of fiduciaries, such as trustees in foreclosures and estates.
Foreclosure Trustee as Debt Collectors.
Just because a debt collector is a fiduciary doesn’t mean that he is excepted from FDCPA compliance. For example, the FDCPA applies when lawyer debt collectors act as trustees in residential foreclosures where the communications include a demand for payment. Courts have found that a debt collection attorney’s activity as a foreclosure trustee isn’t incidental to the fiduciary obligation; it is central to it. The foreclosure trustee debt collector must refrain from continuing foreclosure proceedings or litigation activity until the debt verification requirements are met. In a foreclosure sale, the debt collection attorney obtains cash applied in satisfaction of the debt. A foreclosure trustee has fiduciary obligations that go beyond merely collecting the purchase price. A foreclosure trustee has a broad set of duties under the loan documents to prepare for the sale, conduct it, and disburse the proceeds properly. While association property managers and foreclosure trustees are different types of fiduciaries, in both examples the professional has a broad set of obligations impacting more than one party.
Whether debt collection activity conducted by an association’s manager is non-abusive or “incidental to a fiduciary obligation” requires independent analysis in each case. Boards, homeowners and property managers must familiarize themselves with debt collection laws and the management agreement to determine whether the manager must comply with the strict standards of the FDCPA. If an association’s property manager is engaging in improper collections activity against you, contact a qualified attorney to discuss your rights.
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